cartoon The displays over show three different ways come render the LMW-PTPase. You will recognize the spacefill and also wireframe models, however note your complexity compared to the smaller sized molecules you have studied hence far. The cartoon molecules removes much that the detail by stripping far atoms and bonds, and also replacing them v lines, ribbons (representing alpha helices) and also block arrows (representing beta structure).

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cartoon v phosphate

wireframe through phosphate
Inorganic phosphate, one inhibitor of this enzyme, binds to the enzyme v the intramolecular pressures mentioned above. That is rendered in spacefill v the protein in cartoon and wireframe modes.

DNA might be the most well-known instance of a link that displays hydrogen bonding. In DNA, complementary "base pairs" hydrogen bond to each various other to hosted two strands that DNA together.

Weak, "Secondary" Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonding is really a special case of dipole forces. It wake up under very details circumstances: in the existence of O-H or N-H bonds, which provide both a really positive hydrogen and a lone pair, the two features crucial for a hydrogen bonding interaction.

In general, us think that a hydrogen bond as the electrostatic interaction in between an electron pair on one atom and also a hydrogen atom that has collected a partial positive charge. There room some instances where that might be happenning, but that we would fairly keep different from the general idea of a hydrogen bond. Because that example, a lone pair on one oxygen atom in formaldehyde can be attracted to a hydrogen on another formaldehyde, which would be at the an ext positive end of the molecule. Over there is evidence from x-ray crystallography that such weak "hydrogen bonds" happen in the heavy state in molecules containing aldehyde groups, similar to the one in formaldehyde.

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However, these type of interactions space really very weak. Lock shouldn"t be assumed of in the same group as consistent hydrogen bonds. For that reason, we will offer them a separate term, "secondary" hydrogen bond. This type of interaction is relatively esoteric and you room not that likely to view it. We"re looking in ~ it below really come underscore the idea that there is something really special about the hydrogen bonds resulting from compounds the contain O-H and also N-H bonds.

Later, friend will watch that whenever over there is a case in which over there is an opportunity for consistent hydrogen bonding, the nature of the molecule are significantly affected. The isn"t true otherwise. Second hydrogen bonds may be responsible because that some really subtle impacts in the solid state, once molecules are currently at pretty short energy and are no moving approximately much. However, they hardly change the properties of a molecule past what us would mean based on basic dipole-dipole interactions.

This site is written and also maintained by chris P. Schaller, Ph.D., university of Saint Benedict / Saint John"s college (with contributions from various other authors together noted). The is freely easily accessible for educational use.

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Structure & Reactivity in Organic, Biological and Inorganic Chemistry by kris Schaller is license is granted under a creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.