Magnesium oxide (MgO) or magnesia is a steel oxide that is composed of Magnesium (an alkaline earth metal) and oxygen.

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Magnesium oxide is largely prepared by the calcination that naturally emerging minerals, choose magnesite (MgCO3).


It is generally found in seawater, underground brine deposits, and metamorphic rocks.

It is a white and odorless powdered compound. That is hygroscopic, i.e., it deserve to absorb moisture from the air.

It is highly basic as that reacts through water to type basic magnesium hydroxide. It has high melting and also boiling point.

MgO is a really useful compound. It is regularly used together an antacid since of its basic nature. Magnesia is supplied for making crucibles the are offered in the chemistry industry. It is also used in heating elements, fire-proofing materials, etc.

So, is MgO ionic or covalent? MgO is an ionic compound. An ionic bond is developed by the transfer of electron from a metal (Mg) to a non-metal (O). Mg loses 2 valence electron to form Mg2+, i beg your pardon are gained by O to kind O2-. Thus, an electrostatic communication arises in between two oppositely fee ions, and an ionic bond is formed.

Let us research this in detail.

Why is MgO Ionic?

Magnesium is one alkaline planet metal that has actually 12 electrons and also 12 protons in one atom the Mg.

Mg has tendency to lose the 2 valence electron to gain an octet construction resembling Neon. (Nearest noble gas)In the Mg2+ ion, there space 10 electrons and 12 protons. Together the variety of protons is much more than electrons, a net hopeful charge is existing on magnesium ions.

Electronic configuration of Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Electronic configuration of Mg2+: 1s22s22p6

Mg → Mg2+ + 2e−

Oxygen is a non-metal and has 8 protons and 8 electron in one O-atom. It requirements two electron to complete the octet construction resembling Neon. That takes 2 valence electron of Mg.

On acquiring two electrons, there room 10 electrons and also 8 protons. As the number of electrons is higher than protons, a net negative charge exist on the ion.

Electronic configuration of O: 1s22s22p4

Electronic construction of O2-: 1s22s22p6

O + 2e- → O2-

Therefore, the two electrons i beg your pardon Mg shed were taken up by O. The 2 ions the opposite fees are created in this process.

These 2 ions exert an electrostatic pressure of attraction on each other, leading to bond formation between them. Thus, the shortcut formed in between a metal and a non-metal through the carry of electrons is dubbed an ionic bond.


Factors affecting Ionic Bonding of a Compound

The three determinants that mostly impact the level of ionic bonding are

1. Ionisation Energy:We witnessed that Mg loses two valence electrons to kind a divalent cation.

All electrons room attracted to the cell core by the electromagnetic force. To eliminate the electrons from the atom, some energy is required.

The energy required to remove an electron indigenous an isolated gas atom in the soil state is ionization energy.

If ionization energy is more, that is an overwhelming to shed electrons, and subsequent formation of cation is challenging and vice-versa.

It is positive because energy is gained.

2. Electron affinity:O-atom gains 2 electrons to kind a divalent anion.

Energy is exit on gaining electrons since the addition of electrons reasons stress on other electrons, and consequently power is released.

Electron affinity is the change in energy when an electron is added to a neutral atom in that gaseous step to type a an adverse ion.

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The greater the magnitude of energy, the easier it is to gain electrons and form an anion. It is generally negative because power is released.