1 Introduction1.1 computer system functionality1.2 utilizing files and also programs1.3 The Internet and also WWW1.4 E-mail2 The UH environment2.1 User accounts and also usernames2.2 computer system facilities and services2.3 E-mail at the university of lennythewonderdog.net2.4 Planning her studies2.5 examining online3 info seeking3.1 plan the details search3.2 info retrieval3.3 Library services at the university of lennythewonderdog.net3.4 Utilising and examining search results4 information security4.1 development to info security and privacy protection4.2 Protecting yourself from threatsAdvanced studies: presenting data (1 sp)P.1 Common types of data presentationP.2 native processingP.3 SpreadsheetsP.4 slide showsP.5 moving data between programsP.6 Videos
Operating system and user interface

As currently mentioned, in enhancement to the hardware, a computer also needs a collection of programs—an operating system—to control the devices. This web page will discuss the following:

There are various kinds of operating systems: such as Windows, Linux and Mac OSThere are likewise different versions of these operating systems, e.g. Home windows 7, 8 and also 10Operating systems have the right to be used with different user interfaces (UI): text user interfaces (TUI) and graphical user interfaces (GUI) together examplesGraphical user interfaces have plenty of similarities in various operating systems: such together the begin menu, desktop etc.

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When you can recognize the typical parts that each operating system’s user interface, you will certainly mostly have the ability to use both Windows and also Linux as well as e.g. Mac OS.

The role of operating mechanism in the computer

An operating mechanism (OS) is a collection of programs which guarantee the interoperability that the hardware and software in her computer. The operating device enables, amongst other things,

the identification and also activation that devices connected to the computer,the installation and also use the programs, andthe dealing with of files.

What happens when you revolve on your computer or smartphone?– The computer system checks the usability of the components and any devices connected to it, and starts to look for the OS ~ above a tough drive or various other memory media.– If the OS is found, the computer starts to fill it into the lamb (Random accessibility Memory).– as soon as the OS has loaded, the computer waits for regulates from you.

Different operation systems

Over the years, several various operating systems have actually been arisen for different purposes. The most typical operating solution in ordinary computer systems are Windows, Linux and Mac OS.


The name of the windows OS originates from the fact that programs space run in “windows”: every program has actually its own window, and also you can have several programs open up at the exact same time. Home windows is the most renowned OS for house computers, and also there are several versions that it. The newest version is home windows 10.

Linux and also Unix

Linux is an open-source OS, which method that its routine code is freely accessible to software application developers. This is why hundreds of programmers about the civilization have arisen Linux, and it is considered the most tested OS in the world. Linux has been very much influenced by the advertisement Unix OS.

In addition to servers, Linux is widely provided in residence computers, due to the fact that there are a great number of free programs because that it (for text and also image processing, spreadsheets, publishing, etc.). End the years, plenty of different execution of Linux have actually become easily accessible for distribution, most of which are complimentary for the user (such as Ubuntu, Fedora and Mint, to name a few).

Mac OS X

Apple’s Mac computer systems have their own operating system, OS X. Most of the programs that are available for pcs are also easily accessible for Macs to run under OS X, but these two types of computers cannot usage the precise same programs: for example, you can not install the Mac version of the Microsoft Office suite on a windows computer. You deserve to install other operating equipment on Mac computers, yet the OS X is only available for computer systems made by Apple. Apple’s lighter portable tools (iPads, iPhones) usage a light version of the very same operating system, called iOS.

Mac computer systems are popular because OS X is thought about fast, simple to learn and really stable and Apple’s tools are thought about well-designed—though quite expensive.


Android is an operating device designed for phones and also other cell phone devices. Android is not obtainable for desktop computers, however in mobile devices it is very popular: an ext than a half of every mobile tools in the civilization run ~ above Android.

User interfaces

A user interface (UI) refers to the component of an operating system, program, or machine that enables a user to enter and receive information. A text-based user interface (see the photo to the left) display screens text, and its commands are typically typed top top a command line making use of a keyboard. With a graphical user interface (see the right-hand image), the attributes are brought out by click or moving buttons, icons and also menus by way of a pointing device.

Larger image: message UI | graphical UI

The photos contain the very same information: a directory listing of a computer. You can often lug out the same work regardless the which sort of UI you are using.

Text user interface (TUI)

Modern graphical user interfaces have developed from text-based UIs. Some operating systems deserve to still be supplied with a text-based user interface. In this case, the regulates are gotten in as text (e.g., “cat story.txt”).

To screen the text-based Command note in Windows, open up the Start food selection and kind cmd. Push Enter ~ above the keyboard to launch the command prompt in a different window. With the command prompt, you can kind your commands from the keyboard rather of using the mouse.

Graphical user interface

In most operating systems, the main user interface is graphical, i.e. Instead of inputting the regulates you manipulate various graphical objects (such together icons) with a pointing device. The underlying principle of different graphical user interfaces (GUIs) is mostly the same, therefore by knowing how to usage a home windows UI, you will certainly most most likely know exactly how to use Linux or some other GUI.

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Most GUIs have actually the following straightforward components:

a start food selection with regime groupsa taskbar showing running programsa desktopvarious icons and shortcuts.