skeleton formula that a molecule that hydrogen sulfide. Photo: windy Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1542601

Hydro sulfuric acid, also known together hydrogen sulfide or dihydrogen sulfide, is a colorless gas that has actually the smell of rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulfide is known for being toxic, flammable, and corrosive. The chemistry formula because that hydrogen sulfide is H2S.

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General Facts around Hydrogen Sulfide

Chemical Formula: H2S


Appearance: Hydrogen Sulfide is a completely colorless gas.

Boiling Point: -60 levels Celsius

Melting Point: -82 degrees Celsius

Acidity: 7.0


Density: 1.363 g dm-3

Distinguishing Characteristic: Smells prefer rotten eggs.

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Stick and also ball design of a molecule the hydrogen sulfide. Photo: publicly Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1542601

Properties the Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is made out of two hydrogen atoms and also one sulfur atom. Hydrogen sulfide is denser than regular air, and also when shed with oxygen that produces a blue flame. The burning of hydrogen sulfide produces water and sulfur dioxide. Hydrogen sulfide acts together a reduce agent, a compound or facet that sheds an electron come a various chemical during the food of a redox chemical reaction.

When combined with catalysts or in ~ high temperatures, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide will certainly react with one one more to type water and also sulfur. This reaction is used to dispose that hydrogen sulfide in industrial operations.

Hydrogen sulfide features as a weak acid, and it is water-soluble, despite not heavily water-soluble. When combined with air, the systems will oxidize and create sulfur, i beg your pardon isn’t water-soluble. Although hydrogen sulfide has actually a structure comparable to water, sulfur has actually nowhere close to the level that electronegativity the oxygen does, meaning that hydrogen sulfide is much much less polar 보다 water. Due to hydrogen sulfide’s less polar nature, the melting and also boiling points for hydrogen sulfide space substantially reduced than water’s cook point. Hydrogen sulfide boils at -60.7°C while water boils in ~ 100°C.


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Pure hydrogen sulfide is colorless and also so are remedies containing it. Hydrogen sulfide forms metal sulfides when it reacts with metal ions. These metal sulfides space usually dark in coloration and they are water insoluble. If steel sulfides room treated through a strong acid they free up hydrogen sulfide.

When pressurized above 90 gigapascals the molecule of hydrogen sulfide space able to conduct electricity. High-pressure hydrogen sulfide exhibits superconductivity when it is cooled down listed below a crucial temperature. As push increases, the an essential temperature also increases. The an important temperature because that hydrogen sulfide is somewhere in between 23K at 100 gigapascals and 150 K in ~ 200 gigapascals.

Hydrogen sulfide’s odor is for this reason potent the it can be detect at level of roughly 2 ppb. Together a reference, a concentration the 20 ppb would be 1 mL of the gas evenly spread in a 100 seat college lecture hall.

The production Of Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is usually produced by separating out the molecules from tart gas, and also sour gas is just organic gas that has high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide within it. However, nitrogen sulfide can additionally be produced by combine molten sulfur v hydrogen in ~ a temperature of roughly 450°C. Hydrogen deserve to be acquired from hydrocarbons during this operation.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria also produces hydrogen sulfate together a rubbish product. These bacteria create energy in short oxygen atmospheres by using various sulfates come oxidize hydrogen or various organic compounds. Another method of producing hydrogen sulfide is liberating the from nonmetal and also metal sulfides favor phosphorus sulfide and aluminum sulfide, which have the right to be excellent by exposing the sulfides come water. Hydrogen sulfide gas can be obtained an ext easily indigenous sulfite if water heaters room used, many thanks to the truth that a sustainable warm setting is created for the sulfur bacteria that will create the hydrogen sulfide.

Natural gas deserve to be made up of approximately 90% hydrogen sulfide, which makes the collection of natural gas one of the primary methods that obtaining hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide can likewise be found in smaller amounts in crude oil petroleum. Some natural hot springs and volcanoes additionally emit large amounts of hydrogen sulfide, most likely the product of hydrolysis. Sulfate-reducing bacteria can additionally create hydrogen sulfide in well water. Petroleum refineries are the biggest industrial source of hydrogen sulfide.

Hydrogen sulfide is capable of being created by the cell of the body, through either non-enzymatic or enzymatic pathways. Although many hydrogen sulfide produced inside the body is made in enzymatic pathways, nonenzymatic pathways use proteins prefer Rieseke proteins and ferredoxins to develop hydrogen sulfide. The person body creates hydrogen sulfide in small doses by breaking down proteins v sulfur in them.

Uses because that Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is mainly utilized as a catalyst to obtain elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide is offered in the manufacturing of a handful of various organosulfur compounds including ethanethiol and methanethiol. Once hydrogen sulfide is linked with alkali metal bases, it converts into alkali Hydrosulfides choose sodium Hydrosulfide and also sodium sulfide. One of the primary uses of salt sulfide and other alkali Hydrosulfides is in the procedure of record marking.

Many metal sulfides are developed through the mix of steel ions and hydrogen sulfide. The offers for this metal sulfide conversion encompass cleaning contaminated water or gas. Hydrogen sulfide is often used come treat mineral powders and also to encourage the separation of steel ores throughout the procedure of flotation.

Hydrogen sulfide gas is capable of staving off mitochondrial damages when applied to cells in little amounts. Hydrogen sulfide is also frequently provided to different out heavy water, or deuterium oxide, from continuous water.

Hydrogen Sulfide Dangers

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Hydrogen sulfide is exceptionally flammable. Photo: DavidRockDesign via Pixabay, CC0

Hydrogen sulfide is flammable, occasionally explosive, corrosive, and also toxic.

Hydrogen sulfide deserve to damage numerous different systems and also organs in the body, together it is a broad-spectrum poison. However, hydrogen sulfide has tendency to affect the nervous system the most severely. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning is equivalent to carbon monoxide poisoning in regards to damage, and also it similarly prevents to move respiration.

Because the body naturally produces hydrogen sulfide, the body also has several enzymes that detoxify it, existing within the gut. Hydrogen sulfide is assumed to begin doing comprehensive damage to the body about 50 ppm, and also 20 ppm is the acceptable ceiling concentration follow to the occupational Safety hazard Association. Due to the fact that hydrogen sulfide is heavier 보다 air, it commonly accumulates in poorly ventilated areas, congregating along the floor in fatal concentrations.

Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide can cause problems favor shortness the breath, pulmonary edema, cough, ill throat and eye irritation. These symptoms usually solve themselves in ~ a few days to weeks. However, also lower levels of hydrogen sulfide exposure end the permanent can result in headaches, bad memory, dizziness, and fatigue. Significant pulmonary edema, loss of breathing, and also possibility of death can take place at concentration of over 300 ppm.

Environmental effects Of Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is just one of the major constituent chemicals in the sulfur cycle, which refers to the abiotic and biotic pathways the cycle sulfur with the earth.

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Depiction the the sulfur cycle. Reflects mineralization of necessary sulfur, the bacterial oxidation the hydrogen sulfide, palliation of sulfate to reduced sulfur, and use the sulfide in essential compounds. Photo: through Welcome1To1The1Jungle in ~ English Wikipedia, CC by 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=48498088

There are 4 phases of the sulfur cycle. The first phase requires the creation of inorganic develops of sulfur, prefer hydrogen sulfide, the end of organic sulfur. The second phase involves the redox of those inorganic creates of sulfur, v sulfide, element sulfur, and also sulfate gift oxidized through purple and also green sulfur bacteria. After this, over there is a palliation of sulfate into sulfide, specifically dissimilative sulfur reduction. Finally, sulfide is included into a selection of different organic compound which encompass sulfide derivatives that contain metal.

When organic issue decays in conditions of low oxygen, bacteria that minimize sulfur or sulfate will use the sulfates existing in the atmosphere to oxidize and degrade this necessary material. This process produces hydrogen sulfide together a byproduct. This hydrogen sulfide go on to form metal sulfides by combine with metal ions.

A green algae bloom brought about by the manufacturing of hydrogen sulfide through sulfur bacteria. This type of birds bloom produces hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to fish. Photo: by NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS MODIS Rapid an answer Team in ~ NASA GSFC – https://visibleearth.nasa.gov/images/77287/hydrogen-sulfide-emissions-off-of-africa, public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18917399

Meanwhile, other forms of bacteria strip hydrogen sulfide from amino acids that contain sulfur. Environment-friendly sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria develop elemental sulfur by using hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor during the procedure of photosynthesis.

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While most pets are damaged by exposure come hydrogen sulfide, a couple of species the extremophiles are able to live and thrive in sulfide-rich environments. For example, a number of bacteria and fish live approximately hydrothermal vents that expel hydrogen sulfide. Similarly, there room freshwater springs that have high hydrogen sulfide levels, and these springs are home to a grasp of fish types and invertebrates.