Climate Classification The Köppen Climate classification System is the many widely used device for classifying the world"s climates. Its categories are based on the annual and also monthly averages that temperature and also precipitation. The Köppen device recognizes five significant climatic types; each kind is designated through a capital letter.
A - tropical Moist Climates: every months have actually average temperatures above 18° Celsius. B - dry Climates: through deficient precipitation throughout most the the year. C - Moist Mid-latitude Climates through Mild Winters. D - Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Cold Winters. E - Polar Climates: with incredibly cold winters and summers.

Tropical Moist Climates (A)

Tropical moist climates extend northward and also southward native the equator to about 15 to 25° the latitude. In these climates all months have average temperatures better than 18° Celsius. Yearly precipitation is greater than 1500 mm. Three minor Köppen climate varieties exist in the A group, and also their designation is based on seasonal distribution of rainfall. Af or tropical wet is a dry climate where precipitation occurs all year long. Monthly temperature variations in this climate are much less than 3° Celsius. Since of intense surface ar heating and also high humidity, cumulus and also cumulonimbus clouds form early in the afternoons virtually every day. Everyday highs are around 32° Celsius, if night time temperatures average 22° Celsius. Am is a dry monsoon climate. Annual rainfall is equal to or higher than Af, but most the the precipitation falls in the 7 come 9 sexty months. During the dry season very little rainfall occurs. The tropical wet and dry or savanna (Aw) has prolonged dry season throughout winter. Precipitation throughout the wet season is usually less than 1000 millimeters, and also only throughout the summer season.

Dry Climates (B)

The most obvious climatic feature of this climate is that potential evaporation and also transpiration exceed precipitation. This climates prolong from 20 - 35° North and South of the equator and also in huge continental regions of the mid-latitudes often surrounded by mountains. Minor species of this climate include:
BW - dry arid (desert) is a true desert climate. It covers 12% the the Earth"s land surface and also is overcame by xerophytic vegetation. The extr letters h and k space used typically to differentiate whether the dry arid climate is discovered in the subtropics or in the mid-latitudes, respectively. BS - dry semiarid (steppe). Is a grassland climate the covers 14% the the Earth"s floor surface. That receives more precipitation than the BW either from the intertropical convergence region or indigenous mid-latitude cyclones. As soon as again, the extr letters h and also k are used typically to identify whether the dry halfdry climate is discovered in the subtropics or in the mid-latitudes, respectively.

Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates (C)

This climate typically has warm and humid summers with mild winters. Its level is native 30 to 50° of latitude mainly on the eastern and also western boundaries of many continents. Throughout the winter, the main weather attribute is the mid-latitude cyclone. Convective thunderstorms dominate summer months. Three minor species exist: Cfa - humid subtropical; Cs - Mediterranean; and also Cfb - marine. The humid subtropical climate (Cfa
) has actually hot muggy summers and frequent thunderstorms. Winters space mild and also precipitation during this season comes from mid-latitude cyclones. A good example the a Cfa climate is the southeastern USA. Cfb maritime climates are discovered on the western shores of continents. They have actually a humid climate with brief dry summer. Heavy precipitation occurs throughout the mild winters since of the consistent presence of mid-latitude cyclones. Mediterranean climates (Cs) obtain rain primarily during winter season native the mid-latitude cyclone. Too much summer aridity is resulted in by the sinking wait of the subtropical highs and also may exist for as much as 5 months. Places in phibìc America space from Portland, Oregon to every one of California.

Moist continent Mid-latitude Climates (D)

Moist continental mid-latitude climates have warm to cool summers and cold winters. The place of this climates is pole ward the the C climates. The median temperature the the warmest month is higher than 10° Celsius, when the coldest month is much less than -3° Celsius. Winters are significant with snowstorms, solid winds, and bitter cold from continent Polar or Arctic wait masses. Favor the C climates there are three minor types: Dw - dry winters; Ds - dry summers; and Df - wet all seasons.

Polar Climates (E)

Polar climates have year-round cold temperatures through the warmest month less than 10° Celsius. Polar climates are uncovered on the northern seaside areas of north America, Europe, Asia, and on the landmasses of Greenland and Antarctica. Two minor climate varieties exist. ET or polar tundra is a climate wherein the soil is permanently frozen to depth of numerous meters, a condition known together permafrost. Vegetation is dominated by mosses, lichens, dwarf trees and also scattered woody shrubs. EF or polar ice caps has a surface ar that is permanently covered with snow and ice. determinants Influencing the civilization Climatic Regions

So much in this virtual textbook we have uncovered that the climate the a certain place is the role of a variety of factors. These determinants include:

1) Latitude and its influence on solar radiation received.

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2) waiting mass influences. 3) place of global high and also low pressure zones. 4) heat exchange from s currents. 5) circulation of hill barriers. 6) pattern of prevailing winds. 7) distribution of land and also sea. 8) Altitude.

At a macro-level, the first three factors are most vital in influencing a region"s climate. The man graphic below provides us through a generalised model that the Earth"s yearly climatic variations. It additionally describes the latitudinal results of these height three determinants through the following climatic features:


Relative yearly latitudinal location of the overhead sunlight at solar noon. Intertropical convergence zone and also its area the uplift, cloud advancement and precipitation. Subtropical high push zone and its associated descending wait currents and also clear skies. Polar front and its area that uplift, cloud breakthrough and precipitation. Polar vortex and its connected descending wait currents and clear skies. Relative location of tropical/subtropical (red) and also polar (light blue) air masses.

In the animation we deserve to see the the intertropical convergence zone, the subtropical high pressure zone, polar front and also the position of tropical/subtropical and polar air masses all move in response to the seasonal movements of the Sun. It is crucial to recognize this concept since of the climatic ramifications for places on the globe. The form of climate the a location experiences is to a huge extent a function of seasonal hike of these weather features. Because that example, a ar at 15° phibìc latitude is influenced by the subtropical high push zone during winter solstice and also by the intertropical convergence zone throughout the summer solstice. One more location, at 60° phibìc latitude, would be affected by polar air masses during the winter solstice, the polar front during the equinoxes, and also by subtropical wait masses and also the subtropical high push zone during the summer solstice.

When studying around the Earth"s Climatic Regions as defined below, usage this animation (Figure 7v-1) as a overview to knowledge the huge scale climatic processes that develop each location"s certain climate.

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Figure 7v-1: Solar influence on the movement of the Earth"s an international circulation patterns.

Climatic an ar Descriptions

The following discussion organizes the climatic areas of the civilization into eight different groups. Categorization of this climates is based on their Köppen classification and also seasonal dominance of air masses.


The dry wet climate is characterized by somewhat continual daily high temperatures ranging in between 20 to 30° Celsius. The monthly temperature averages vary from 24 come 30° Celsius. Annual variety of monthly temperature is around 3° Celsius. It has reasonably uniform precipitation every year round, and also total rainfall end 2000 millimeters or greater.

The an ar experiencing this climate lies in ~ the results of the intertropical convergence zone all year long. Convergence and high marine humidity create cumulus clouds and also thunderstorms nearly daily.

Af - Andagoya, Columbia 5° N , Elevation: 65 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 27 27 28 28 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
Precip. Mm 554 519 557 620 655 655 572 574 561 563 563 512 6905

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Figure 7v-2: mean monthly temperature and precipitation values for Andagoya, Columbia.

Af - Iquitos, Peru 4° S , Elevation: 104 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 27 27 27 27 26 26 25 27 27 27 27 27 26
Precip. Mm 256 276 349 306 271 199 165 157 191 214 244 217 2845

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Figure 7v-3: average monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Iquitos, Peru.

Tropical Wet and also Dry


Köppen category - Aw and also Am. marine Tropical waiting masses high sunlight season and also Continental Tropical air masses low sun season.

This climate has distinct wet/dry periods. The seasonal pattern of humidity is due to the migrate of the intertropical convergence zone. The wet season is synchronous through the high Sun and also the visibility of the convergence zone. The dried season is a result of the more stable air developing from the subsidence linked with the existence of the subtropical high zone during the low sun season.

During the rainy season, the climate that this place is comparable to the tropical wet climate: warm, humid, and has frequent thunderstorms. Throughout the dry season more or much less semi-desert problems prevail. Some regions may experience intensification the rainfall because of monsoon breakthrough and orographic uplift.

Aw - Calcutta, India 22.5° N , Elevation: 6 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 20 23 28 30 31 30 29 29 30 28 24 21 27
Precip. Mm 13 24 27 43 121 259 301 306 290 160 35 3 1582

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Figure 7v-4: median monthly temperature and precipitation values for Calcutta, India.

Aw - Cuiaba, Brazil 13.5° S , Elevation: 165 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 27 27 27 27 26 24 24 26 28 28 28 27 27
Precip. Mm 216 198 232 116 52 13 9 12 37 130 165 195 1375

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Figure 7v-5: mean monthly temperature and precipitation values for Cuiaba, Brazil.

Aw - Darwin, Australia 12.5° S , Elevation: 27 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 28 28 28 28 27 25 25 26 28 29 29 29 28
Precip. Mm 341 338 274 121 9 1 2 5 17 66 156 233 1563

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Figure 7v-6: mean monthly temperature and precipitation values for Darwin, Australia.


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 27 27 28 29 29 27 26 26 26 27 27 27 27
Precip. Mm 5 2 9 40 233 982 1059 577 267 206 71 18 3467

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Figure 7v-7: mean monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for Mangalore, India.

Subtropical Desert and Steppe


This climate type covers 12 percent of every land area on the continents. The love of the tropic desert climate is discovered near the tropics of Cancer and also Capricorn, usually towards the western next of the continents. Areas with this climate have the following usual climatic characteristics:


low relative humidity and also cloud cover. Low frequency and also amount that precipitation. High mean yearly temperature. High monthly temperatures. High diurnal temperature ranges. High wind velocities.

The tropic desert climate is affected by upper air stability and subsidence i m sorry is the result of the presence of the subtropical high pressure zone. Relative humidity is normally low, averaging 10 come 30 percent in inner locations. Precipitation is an extremely low in quantity and very infrequent in distribution, both temporally and also spatially.

Temperature varies substantially both diurnally and also annually. The highest possible average monthly temperatures on the planet are found in the dry desert. They variety between 29 to 35° Celsius. Winter monthly temperatures can be 15 to 25° cooler 보다 summer temperatures. This climate additionally has extreme diurnal ranges of temperature. The average diurnal variety is from 14 come 25° Celsius.

BWh - Berbera, Somalia 10.5° N , Elevation: 8 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 25 26 27 29 32 37 37 37 34 29 26 26 30
Precip. Mm 8 2 5 12 8 1 1 2 1 2 5 5 52

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Figure 7v-8: mean monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for Berbera, Somalia.

BWh - Alice Springs, Australia 23.5° S , Elevation: 579 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 28 28 25 20 15 12 12 14 18 23 26 27 21
Precip. Mm 44 34 28 10 15 13 7 8 7 18 29 39 252

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Figure 7v-9: mean monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Alice Springs, Australia.

BSh - Monterrey, Mexico 26° N , Elevation: 512 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 14 17 20 23 26 27 28 28 26 22 18 15 22
Precip. Mm 18 23 16 29 40 68 62 151 78 26 29 20 606

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Figure 7v-10: median monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for Monterrey, Mexico.

Mid-Latitude Desert and also Steppe


Köppen group - BWk and BSk. overcame by continental Tropical wait masses during summer and Continental Polar in winter.
This climate kind covers 14 percent of every land area on the continents. Regions with this climate have the following similar climatic characteristics: low loved one humidity and cloud cover. low frequency and amount of precipitation. moderate come high yearly temperature. moderate to high monthly temperatures.

These climates space dry because of extreme continentality and also the effect of high elevations. Being located at the center of a continent boundaries the lot of moisture offered from s sources. There is no this moisture precipitation have the right to not occur. The existence of hills upwind of this climates can additional reduce moisture access because that the rainshadow effect. Significant expanses that mid-latitude deserts can be found east that the Caspian Sea, phibìc of the Himalayas, in western united States, and also east of the Andes in a narrow region in southern south America. Mid-latitude deserts have actually a greater selection of both daily and also annual temperatures than their subtropical counterparts. In most cases, summer temperatures space not together high in mid-latitude deserts when compared to subtropical deserts. Over there are, however, exception like death Valley, California which is one of the hottest areas on ours planet. Winter temperatures have tendency to be rather cool.

Mid-latitude steppe climates cover substantial parts the western phibìc America and main Asia. This climate typically has comparable temperature characteristics as mid-latitude deserts. However, mid-latitude steppe climates perform receive slightly more precipitation 보다 mid-latitude deserts.


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 0 4 6 10 15 20 24 22 18 12 5 0 11
Precip. Mm 16 16 11 14 13 14 4 6 7 13 13 15 143
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Figure 7v-11: median monthly temperature and precipitation values for Lovelock, USA.

BSk - Denver, Colorado, USA 40° N , Elevation: 1611 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -1 1 4 9 14 19 23 22 17 11 4 -1 10
Precip. Mm 14 16 34 45 63 43 47 38 28 26 23 15 391

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Figure 7v-12: average monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Denver, USA.


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -12 -10 -4 6 13 17 22 20 14 8 -2 -8 5
Precip. Mm 14 12 18 24 36 84 48 38 28 19 15 13 349

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Figure 7v-13: median monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Williston, USA.

Mid-Latitude Wet


Köppen category - Cf and also Df. naval Tropical in summer and also Maritime Polar in winter.

The Mid-Latitude Wet climate is uncovered in the north Hemisphere in the an ar from 60° phibìc to 25 come 30° North mainly along the east margins of the continents. In north America, this climate extends native the Pacific coast of Canada at latitudes above 55° eastward come the Atlantic coastline where the dominates the eastern half of the continent. In the southerly Hemisphere, this climate exists on the Southeastern tip of southern America, new Zealand and the Southeast coast of Australia.

Summer weather is overcame by naval Tropical air masses i beg your pardon produce plenty of thunderstorms native daytime heating. Monthly mean temperature ranges from 21 to 26° Celsius with the tropical locations going as high as 29° Celsius. This is slightly warmer than the humid tropics. Frontal weather connected with the mid-latitude cyclone constrain the climate of an ext polar areas and is more frequent in all regions in the winter.

Precipitation in this climate is relatively evenly dispersed throughout the year. Yearly totals the precipitation are fairly variable and also depend ~ above the latitude and continental position of the regions. Throughout the summer and also on the equatorial margins, convectional rainfall is the major mechanism that precipitation. The southeast of the united Sates averages 40 to 60 work of thunderstorms every year. The frequency the thunderstorms decreases quickly from southern to north. Hurricanes also provide a device for creating precipitation in more tropical regions of this climate.

Cf - brand-new Orleans, USA 30° N , Elevation: 1 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 12 13 16 20 24 27 28 28 26 21 16 13 20
Precip. Mm 98 101 136 116 111 113 171 136 128 72 85 104 1371

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Figure 7v-14: average monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for new Orleans, USA.

Cf - Buenos Aires, Argentina 34.5° S , Elevation: 27 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 23 23 21 17 13 9 10 11 13 15 19 22 16
Precip. Mm 103 82 122 90 79 68 61 68 80 100 90 83 1026

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Figure 7v-15: typical monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 4 4 7 9 12 16 18 17 15 11 7 5 10
Precip. Mm 54 40 37 38 46 46 56 59 50 57 64 48 595

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Figure 7v-16: median monthly temperature and precipitation worths for London, England.

Df - Winnipeg, Canada 50° N , Elevation: 240 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -18 -16 -8 3 11 17 20 19 13 6 -5 -13 3
Precip. Mm 26 21 27 30 50 81 69 70 55 37 29 22 517

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Figure 7v-17: median monthly temperature and precipitation values for Winnipeg, Canada.

Mid-Latitude Winter-Dry


Köppen classification - Cw and also Dw. maritime Tropical wait masses in summer and also Continental Polar wait masses in winter.

This climate is characterized by a solid seasonal sample of both temperature and precipitation. The normal ar of the Mid-Latitude Winter-Dry climate is in the internal of the continents in the mid-latitudes. This continent location causes a big annual temperature selection because of continentality.

This climate receives maritime Tropical air masses in the summer v occasional continent Tropical waiting masses native the nearby deserts. Summers are hot and humid through intense summer convectional storms. Continent Polar air masses are dominant in the winter through an occasional outbreak of maritime Polar air. Continent Polar waiting masses are connected with cold, dried weather conditions. Precipitation largely occurs in the summer from thunderstorm activity. The mid-latitude cyclone produce a smaller quantity of precipitation in the winter.

Dfa - Omaha, Nebraska, USA 41° N , Elevation: 298 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -5 -3 3 11 17 23 26 25 19 13 4 -2 11
Precip. Mm 21 24 37 65 88 115 86 101 67 44 32 20 700

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Figure 7v-18: typical monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for Omaha, USA.

Dw - Calgary, Canada 51° N , Elevation: 1140 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -10 -9 -4 4 10 13 17 15 11 5 -2 -7 4
Precip. Mm 17 20 26 35 52 88 58 59 35 23 16 15 444

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Figure 7v-19: typical monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Calgary, Canada.

Mid-Latitude Summer-Dry


Köppen classification - Cs. Summer weather is conquered by continental Tropical air, when in the winter, naval Polar wait masses room frequent.

The Mid-Latitude Summer-Dry climate is uncovered on the west margins the the continents between 30 to 40° that latitude. Usually, this climate does not spread right into the continents really far. This climate is often dubbed a Mediterranean climate.

Precipitation drops mainly in the winter in this climate via the mid-latitude cyclone. During the summer these locations are affected by stable subtropical highs, that provide them dry, heat weather.

Cs - Santiago, Chile 33.5° S , Elevation: 512 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 19 19 17 13 11 8 8 9 11 13 16 19 14
Precip. Mm 3 3 5 13 64 84 76 56 30 13 8 5 360

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Figure 7v-20: average monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Santiago, Chile.

Cs - Los Angeles, USA 34° N , Elevation: 37 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 13 14 15 17 18 20 23 23 22 18 17 15 18
Precip. Mm 78 85 57 30 4 2 0 1 6 10 27 73 373

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Figure 7v-21: mean monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Los Angeles, USA.

Cs - Rome, Italy 42° N , Elevation: 131 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C 8 8 10 13 17 22 24 24 21 16 12 9 15
Precip. Mm 76 88 77 72 63 48 14 22 70 128 116 106 881

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Figure 7v-22: average monthly temperature and precipitation worths for Rome, Italy.


Köppen classification - ET. naval Polar in summer and also Continental Polar or Arctic in winter.

The polar tundra climate is characterized by cold winters, cool summers, and a summer rainfall regime. Locations experiencing this climate are the north American Arctic coast, Iceland, seaside Greenland, the Arctic coastline of Europe and also Asia, and the southerly Hemisphere archipelago of McQuarie, Kerguelen, and also South Georgia. Annual precipitation averages less than 250 mm for many locations and also most that this precipitation falls during the summer.

ET - Isachsen, Canada 79° N , Elevation: 35 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -35 -37 -35 -24 -12 0 4 1 -8 -19 -28 -32 -19
Precip. Mm 2 2 1 4 8 3 22 23 18 10 4 2 98

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Figure 7v-23: mean monthly temperature and also precipitation worths for Isachen, Canada.

ET - Barrow, Alaska, USA 72° N , Elevation: 9 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -25 -28 -26 -19 -7 1 4 3 -1 -10 -19 -24 -13
Precip. Mm 5 4 4 4 4 8 22 25 16 12 6 4 113

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Figure 7v-24: median monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Barrow, USA.

Polar ice cream Cap


Polar ice cap climates are located in the high latitudes over continental areas, like Greenland and also the Antarctica. This climate type covers a large area the the planet. For fifty percent of the year no solar radiation is received. Throughout the summer months, easily accessible insolation is reasonably high because of long days and also a fairly transparent atmosphere. However, the albedo the snow-covered surfaces reflects up 90 percent of the insolation back to space. Mean monthly temperatures space all generally below zero° Celsius. Winds room consistent and velocity is high sufficient to develop blizzard conditions most that the time.

EF - Eismitte, Greenland 71° N , Elevation: 2953 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Temp. ° C -42 -47 -40 -32 -24 -17 -12 -11 -11 -36 -43 -38 -29
Precip. Mm 15 5 8 5 3 3 3 10 8 13 13 25 111

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Figure 7v-25: mean monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Eismitte, Greenland.

EF - Plateau Station, Antarctica 79° S , Elevation: 3625 m


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

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Year
Temp. ° C -34 -44 -57 -66 -66 -69 -68 -71 -65 -60 -44 -32 -56
Precip. Mm NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

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Figure 7v-26: median monthly temperature and also precipitation values for Plateau Station, Antarctica.


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Citation: Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Climate Classification and also Climatic regions of the World". Fundamentals of physical Geography, 2nd Edition. Date Viewed. Http://www.lennythewonderdog.net/fundamentals/7v.html

Created through Dr. Michael Pidwirny & Scott Jones university of brothers Columbia Okanagan