Why do chroniclers classify ancient Sumer as a civilization?. Chapter 5. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Why do chroniclers classify old Sumer together a civilization?

Why do historians classify old Sumer as a civilization?

Chapter 5

Civilization is a society that has arisen arts and sciences and also organizations.

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Until 150 year ago, Archeologist had no idea the Sumerian people had live at all.Mid-19th century archeologist started finding artefacts in the area of the productive Crescent (Mesopotamia)Scientist uncovered: Tablets, pottery and also the damages of the city. They uncovered written language that they had never watched before

By examining they have been maybe to uncover out a lot around Sumer

conventional of Ur

Made that wood and decorated v pieces the shell and lapis lazuli (semiprecious blue stone)Shows Sumerians in time of peace and also warShows Sumerians had actually a facility societyInventions: Plow and also writing (are still offered today)Characteristics of people (5.2)

Sumer was a difficult place come live:Hot summers, little rain, and rivers the flooded in the spring

Built complicated irrigation solution and big cities.

By 3000 B.C.E. Most Sumerians live in powerful city-states: Ur, Lagash (LAY-gash), Uruk (Uh-Ruhk)

What renders a civilization?

1. A steady Food SupplyEnsures that world have sufficient food

Sumerians developed two crucial things to help them produce stable food supply

Complex watering SystemPlow

1. Innovation of the facility irrigationIrrigation device that detailed their plants with constant water supply

CanalsDamsReservoirs

Invention that the plow

Plow- Tool supplied for tilling or transforming the floor to prepare it for planting.

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Before the plow farmers would use pet horns or sticks come poke feet in the ground and also plant seeds. This process was really slow.

Sumerians developed the plow out of wood. One end was bent for cutting right into the ground. The Sumerians pushed and pulled the plow follow me the ground, or used oxen to traction it. 2. Social structure (5.4) various social levels and jobs

Several classes stayed in Sumer

3. System of government (5.5)

Ensures that life in the society is orderly by directing individuals behaviorRuled by KingsBelieved that their gods chose kings (very powerful)Reinforced society order- because obeying the will of the gods were the Sumerians strongest belief

Sumerian Kings

1.Enforced laws2. Collected taxes3. Constructed temples4. Do sure irrigation system to be maintained5. Led his city-states army(one that the most essential job due to the fact that the consistent fighting end land boundaries and water use)a. Armies included skilled soldiers and temporary citizen-soldiersb. Foot soldiers and also others drive chariots through horses6. Appointed public official to assist with dutiesa. Governors ruled outlying townsb. Scribes aided record laws

*Sumerians were the an initial to develop a device of written laws

4. Spiritual System (5.6)Involves both a collection of beliefs and forms the worship

All people have some type of spiritual beliefReligious SystemSet of beliefs in a god or godsForm the WorshipReligious beliefs influenced every component of daily life

Sumerians tried come please their gods in all thingsIn farming cropsSettling disputes

Religion bound the people together in a common means of life

Sumerians express their religious beliefs by constructing temples and religious temples dubbed Ziggurats

Kings duty come build and also maintainTowers were platforms made of dirt bricksWood shrines on the highest tierWere big and could be seen from 20 mile awaySome were as high together 8 stories and as large as 200 ftZigguratSumerian BeliefsSumerians thought their gods lived in the ziggurats(most likely in the shrines up top)On the external walls that the ziggurats were lengthy staircases that the gods can use to climb down to earthKings and Priest stood within the towers to ask for the gods blessingsSumerian statues additionally expressed religious beliefsdetailed & lifelikeMany showed human being worshipping the gods(eyes gazing upward)

Believed the gods to be pleased when human being showed indications of devotion, love & obedience

CeremoniesMusicians played

Human sacrifices(ritual killing of a human being as an offering to the gods)

Lyres- wooden tools made of a sound box and also string. A wood bar ~ above top hosted the strings in ar Lyres to be decorated with valuable stones and with carvings made of hornThis verified the value of music5. Extremely developed method of life : The art (5.7)

Art, architecture, paintings, music and also literatureArtist and Artisans in ancient Sumer

Many species of artist and artisans in ancient SumerMetalworkers: tools & cups, jewelry and mirrors (Decorative items) Architects draft temples and ziggurats

Music

Brought joy to the gods and peopleMusicians sang and also played music during templeWrote love songsEntertained guest because that feast

Instruments included: drum, pipeline & lyre

6. Advancements in an innovation

Sumerians made several technical advancesMost important was the WheelEarliest example date ago to 3500 B.C.EWheel was an initial used together a surface ar to shape clay right into potsPotters wheel laid flat and spun on an axleSumerian realized that if the wheel was flipped top top its sheet it could easily role forwardDiscovery was provided to make rolled cart for farmers and chariots because that the armyWheels were built by clamping numerous pieces of hardwood together

Before the wheel civilization drug items on sledges (flat bottom carts)Get grounding in the mudCouldnt support heavy weightWheeled carts make it much easier to travel long distance Oxen could pull three times as much then when using a sledge

The Arch

Sumerian arcs were reverse (upside down) U or V shaped structures built above doorwaysTo build an arch Sumerians stacked brick do of clay and also straw to rise from the wall surfaces in actions until lock met in the centerArches included strength and also beauty come Sumerian buildingBecame a usual feature of temple entrances and also upper class homesSome historians think that the arch is the Sumerians biggest architectural achievement.

7. Highly occurred written language

Cuneiform

Latin word because that WedgeSumerians supplied a wedge shaped stylus (a sharp, spicy tool) to etch their writing in clay tabletsCuneiform to be developed approximately 2400 B.C.E.

The more quickly examples display that that was provided to document information around goods human being exchangedCuneiform might have consisted of as plenty of as 2,000 signs to was standing for ideas and also soundsOver time the number was decreased to 700Cuneiform to be based off of an earlier simpler form of composing that supplied pictographsPictographs- signs that stand for real objects (ex. Line or water)Scribes provided sharpened reed to draw the icons on wet clayWhen dried it came to be a permanent record